The story of Togo, the German colony gifted to Britain and France

The French-speaking West African nation of Togo was pivotal during the transatlantic slave trade as Portuguese slave traders sought the human merchandise at the small fort of Porto Seguro, in the town currently known as Agbodrafo and lying between the Atlantic Ocean and Lake Togo.

During the infamous Scramble for Africa in 1884, Germany took hold of Togo and the current Volta Region of Ghana as a protectorate collectively known as the German Togoland.

German colonial lord carried by locals
This was legalized after Gustav Nachtigal signed a treaty with the chief of Togoville, King Mlapa III in the same year.

This photograph shows soldiers of the Togo Polizeitruppe with their German commander

The protectorate became Germany’s only self-supporting colony as the locals were forced to work on cotton, cocoa and coffee plantations while paying high taxes. The Germans built the Lome port and a railway that established their rule inland.

Their occupation was short lived after the first world war defeat in 1914. The area was invaded by the British and French and in 1916, Togoland was divided into British and French zones. It was formalized in 1922 with the creation of British Togoland and French Togoland.

British Togoland after the partition
After the World War II, the territories went under the United Nations and the residents of British Togoland voted to join the Gold Coast prior to independence in 1957.

French Togoland became autonomous within the French Union in 1959 and in 1960, the Togolese Republic was proclaimed. The country held its first presidential election in 1961 making Sylvanus Olympio the first president after he garnered a 100% of the vote in elections boycotted by the opposition.

Sylvanus Olympio
The Republic thereafter went through many transitions including two military coups: in 1963 and in 1967, both led by Sergeant Gnassingbe Eyadema. The second coup overthrew Nicolas Grunitzky, the elected president after the first coup.

Gnassingbé_Eyadema
Eyadema assumed the seat of president for 38 years until his death. His son, Faure Gnassingbe assumed power till date. The ruling dynasty has been mired by protests from the opposition.

By Ismail Akwei

Hotep

« Wenn es um Afrika geht, verlieren die Menschen den Verstand »

Mitte des 21. Jahrhunderts werde die Mehrheit der Menschen aus Afrika stammen, erklärte Mbmbe. Als Folge von Umweltzerstörung und wirtschaftlichen und technologischen Entwicklungen stehe die Welt vor einem Zeitalter der globalen Migration, die in einer Geschwindigkeit stattfinden werde, wie wir sie bisher noch nicht erlebt hätten. Die Mobilität von afrikanischen Menschen und Gütern werde dabei nur einen Teil ausmachen.

Europa irre, wenn es glaube, sich dagegen abschotten zu können: « Dafür ist es zu spät! », so Mbembe im Detschlandfunk. Es sei denn, es sei bereit, zu Mitteln zu greifen, die in letzter Konsequenz bis zum Genozid führten. « Europa muss sich entscheiden, ob es diesen Weg tatsächlich gehen will, oder ob es doch in der Lage ist, sich auf ein solidarisches Miteinander zu besinnen, in dieser Welt, die wir alle teilen », sagte Mbembe.

Liberale Demokratien seien weltweit bedroht, warnte er. Die größte Bedrohung gehe jedoch nicht von Populismus und rechtem Gedankengut aus, sondern vom unregulierten Kapitalismus, der sich immer weiter ausbreite.

Europa ist in der Verantwortung
Wenn es um das Thema Migration geht, räumt Mbembe ein, dass auch schlechte Regierungen, Perspektivlosigkeit und fehlende Teilhabe in vielen afrikanischen Ländern mit zu den Ursachen zählen. Doch ein Großteil der Verantwortung trage Europa selbst – durch seine jahrhundertelange rücksichtlose Ausbeutung des afrikanischen Kontinents, seiner Menschen, seiner Ressourcen, seiner Kultur. Die Europäer müssten endlich verstehen, dass alles, was sie irgendwo tun, am Ende auf sie zurückfalle, und sei es in Form von Migranten. « Nehmen Sie die Delta-Region in Nigeria, wo Shell seit 50 Jahren Öl ausbeutet: Es ist alles zerstört, das ganze Öko-System. Der Boden ist vergiftet, die Luft lässt sich nicht mehr atmen. Fischerei ist nicht mehr möglich, und wovon sollen die Menschen dort leben? Natürlich wollen sie ihre Region verlassen! »

Der Postkolonialismus-Forscher verweist auf den Export von Sondermüll, sogar Atommüll nach Afrika und hat dafür bittere Worte: « Wir verkrüppeln die Leute über Generationen, zerstören ihre Lebensgrundlage, und dann sitzen wir hier und glauben, sie würden nicht an unsere Tür klopfen? »

Den Preis für westliche Demokratien zahlen andere
Achille Mbembe verweist darauf, dass die westlichen Staaten, die so gern auf die Errungenschaften der liberalen Demokratie, Menschenrechte und Werte verweisen, schon immer gut darin gewesen seien, die Kosten für ihre eigenen Freiheit anderen Teilen der Welt aufzubürden. So sei die Demokratie in den USA lange vollkommen kompatibel mit der Sklaverei gewesen. Bis heute herrsche Ignoranz gegenüber den Kosten, die die anderen zu tragen hätten: « Es ist ja nicht so, dass es keine Kenntnisse darüber gibt. Niemand will es wissen! »

Harsche Kritik äußert Achille Mbembe auch an der aktuellen Afrika-Politik der Europäischen Staaten. Europa solle aufhören, Diktaturen zu unterstützen wie die, die in Kamerun seit über 36 Jahren an der Macht sei. Ein Land wie die Schweiz lebe davon, dass Diktaturen dort ihr Geld bunkerten. Vor diesem Hintergrund kritisiert der Politikwissenschaftler speziell die europäische Migrationspolitik. « Es kann nicht sein, dass Afrika mit einer Milliarde und die Türkei mit zwei Milliarden Dollar unterstützt werden, damit Diktatoren Lager bauen können, um Migration zu verhindern. Und das nennt sich zynischerweise Entwicklungshilfe. » Noch nie, so Mbembe, habe es in der Welt so viele Lager gegeben wie heute.

Statt in todbringende Infrastruktur müsse Europa in Afrika endlich in lebenserhaltende Strukturen investieren, forderte Mbembe. Dazu gehöre auch, dazu beizutragen, dass Afrikaner sich innerhalb ihres eigenen Kontinents frei bewegen könnten. « Niemand verlässt freiwillig seine Heimat, in der er aufgewachsen ist. »

Von Achille Mbembe

Hotep

Statistically speaking, black people in Germany don’t exist

. “Black people in Germany are mostly invisible,” says Daniel Gyamerah of Diversity in Leadership, a German advocacy group for people of color that advocates for equality of data.

Germany doesn’t see race—or at least it pretends not to. Racial categories that are commonplace in the US and UK—such as white, black, and Asian—don’t exist in Germany. The government doesn’t see any need to measure the number of ethnic minorities in certain schools, universities, and jobs, because it doesn’t want to divide its citizens. The prevailing argument, which holds in much of Western Europe, is “if you don’t want to create racism, you have to avoid using categories,” says Simon Patrick, a senior researcher at the National Institute for Demographic Studies. Everyone is German, the thinking goes, and should be treated the same across the board.

To some, these are lofty principles aimed at boosting equality. But many feel they harm racial progress. While the racist sentiments of the far right often spark heated debate, there is little discussion of the deep-seated discrimination plaguing established communities of color on matters like education, policing, and employment. The election’s focus on immigration has overshadowed these issues, leaving black, Asian, and ethnic minority communities in the dark.

In a country that prides itself on the use of data and evidence, the lack of information speaks volumes. The result, says Gyamerah, is that if “you’re not counted, then you don’t count.”

One size fits all
Germany doesn’t collect racial statistics (i.e., black, white, Asian). So while the US knows its black population makes up roughly 13% of its population, and the UK’s black population amounts to roughly 3%, Germany is clueless. A UN team that recently examined racism in Germany estimated there to be many as one million people with “African roots” in Germany, more than 1% of the population. But such estimates are unreliable, partly because it’s unclear how many black people would identify as having “African roots.”

What Germany does document is the country of origin of recent immigrants. According to official statistics, one in five German residents are now first or second-generation immigrants, meaning either they were born in another country or have one parent born in another country. (For a rough sense of comparison, 11% of France’s population has at least one immigrant parent.) Among German voters, one in ten have a migrant background. The country’s largest immigrant block (amounting to just over half of its immigrant voters) is made up of ethnic Germans from largely former Soviet countries (largely known as Spätaussiedler) and Turkish Germans.

Beyond that, the demographic data is extremely hazy. All ethnic minority Germans who aren’t first or second-generation immigrants are just labeled “German.”

Large immigrant groups like Turkish Germans have gained some clout, partly by winning seats in parliament. But without granular data, the tendency is still to view migrant voters as one political force. “There is not that one type of migrant voter. Why should somebody who came to Germany from Ukraine 20 years ago have the same political preferences as somebody who moved here from southern Turkey? Or somebody who came here from Italy in the 1950s?” Dennis Spies, a researcher on migrant voter behavior in Germany, told Deutsche Welle.

By contrast, ethnic minorities in the UK and US are now a formidable political force. In 1965, there were just six black Americans in the House of Representatives. By 2015, that figure jumped to 44. This year, the UK elected its most diverse parliament to date (jumping from three ethnic minority MPs in 1987 to 52).

Black Americans played a crucial role in electing Barack Obama in 2008 and 2012. In the 2016 presidential election, low voter turnout among blacks was considered a major reason for why Hillary Clinton lost. In the UK, ethnic minorities helped the Labour Party gain enough ground to deny prime minister Theresa May a governing majority in parliament.

Politicians in these countries outwardly court ethnic minorities. In a nod to black culture, Clinton famously told a radio host she keeps “hot sauce” in her bag, while UK Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn courted grime artists to mobilize black and ethnic minority voters.

This just doesn’t exist in Germany. “Policy makers don’t even know that black people as a group exist,” says Gyamerah. They are genuinely “surprised when we talk about black people,” he says.

The lack of attention results in racism, and makes solving problems caused by racism harder to fix. “If you want to implement anti-discrimination policies, you need to identify those who are facing discrimination,” says Patrick.

In German schools, for instance, advocates of ethnic minorities say teachers block minority pupils from advancing. Students of color are overrepresented in the worst schools in Germany (and underrepresented in the schools designed to send children to universities) and discriminated against in the labor market. “You have no real proof, although you have a lot of anecdotal evidence,” says Sarah Chander, an advocacy officer for the European Network Against Racism.

Racial profiling is also a problem with police. In 2016, when Germany was rocked by allegations of mass sexual assault by Arab men on New Year’s Eve, police claimed an acronym they used to describe screened suspects, ‘Nafris’ (an abbreviation of “Nordafrikanische Intensivtaeter” or “North African Repeat Offenders”), was not racist. A recent UN report found racist stereotypes prevent authorities from properly investigating and prosecuting racist violence and hate crimes.

By contrast, in the UK, accessible data shows black Brits are four times as likely as their white counterparts to be stopped and searched by the police. Armed with this fact, black and ethnic minority communities and racial justice organization have successfully pressured the government to change tack and reform the police force. They pointed to studies that showed stop and search does little to reduce crime and that racial discrimination was a leading cause (pdf) of black and Asian Brits being stopped and searched more.

A long, hard road
Ethnic minorities have existed in Germany since long before the refugee crisis, even if they don’t feature prominently in history as its told. The country’s sizable minority population is the result of 17th century black servants coming to Germany, the country’s colonial presence in Namibia, Cameroon, Togo, and Tanzania, foreign black soldiers stationed in Germany during World War II, and later migration waves from Turkey and other southern countries.

The few black and ethnic minority politicians who do exist face a lot of abuse. One of Germany’s first black MPs, Senegalese-born Karamba Diaby, is fighting a torrent of online criticism (including being called “a black monkey”, a “traitor”, and “nigger”) in his bid for reelection. Last month, the National Democratic Party (NPD), a far right party, shared an image of Diaby campaign poster with the caption: “German representative of the people, according to the SPD. Who betrayed us? The Social Democrats.” Diaby quickly replied with a post of his own, boldly stating, “I am not your negro.”

AFD leader Alexander Garland cut down (paywall) a German public servant of Turkish origin for denying that there was a “specific German culture” and said he wanted to “dispose of her in Anatolia.” German chancellor Angela Merkel joined a chorus of critics accusing Gauland of racism.

Some suggest the paucity of data is intentional. These are policies that allow dominant groups to “keep the position and domination in the country,” says Patrick. Whatever the reason, it’s clear the problem will persist long after this election season.

By Aamna Mohdin

Hotep

Bitter Kola Health Benefits

Foods like Bitter (Garcinia) Kola have been used as natural medicines for hundreds of years, but it’s only recently that scientists are figuring out their notable health benefits.

Judging by the name, this super-plant has a very bitter taste. But once you discover the amazing ways it can improve your wellbeing, you’ll definitely want to incorporate it into your everyday diet.

About Bitter Kola
Bitter kola, also known as Garcinia kola, is native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa. Almost all plant parts can be used for medicinal purposes, including the seeds, bark, and fruit (nuts).

The bitter-tasting plant contains high levels of various vitamins including A, B, C, and E, as well as minerals like iron, calcium, and potassium. In addition, bitter kola is very rich in dietary fiber and antioxidants.

This amazing nutritional profile makes bitter kola one of the healthiest plants on the planet. Studies have found that this plant aids weight loss, has a positive influence on the liver, helps with respiratory problems, improves eyesight, etc.

Keep reading to find out more about bitter kola’s amazing benefits.

Potential Benefits Of Bitter Kola
Aids Weight Loss
Even though weight loss effects in bitter kola were believed to be due to its caffeine content, a study conducted in 2009 found that this is a result of several factors.

Bitter kola aids weight loss in several ways. First, it suppresses your appetite and cravings, allowing you to go longer without snacking on unhealthy food. Second, it stimulates thirst, encouraging increased consumption of water. This, in turn, boosts your metabolism, making it burn fat more efficiently.

Weight loss can be really challenging, but adding foods like Garcinia kola in combination with regular physical activity can significantly increase the chances of success.

Effects On The Liver
A research conducted several years ago in Nigeria found that a mixture of Garcinia kola and honey helps protect the liver from damage caused by the intake of drugs and toxic substances.

The study claims that bitter kola enhances the antioxidant levels in the liver, without any side effects after long-term consumption. The study concludes that this bitter plant is great for liver detoxification.

Fights Bad Breath
The active compound in bitter kola called dimeric flavonoid is known for treating bad breath. Studies have demonstrated that this compound has strong antibacterial properties, which means that it efficiently fights bacteria that cause bad mouth odor.

All you need to do is chew a piece or two of Garcinia kola before going to sleep. In the morning, your mouth will feel fresh, just like after brushing your teeth.

Bitter Kola And Honey For Coughs
The above-mentioned antibacterial properties in bitter kola are also very effective in fighting stubborn coughs. When combined with honey, which is also known for fighting bacteria in addition to boosting energy levels and enhancing immunity, Garcinia kola becomes a powerful natural cough remedy.

Here is how to make this simple cure at home:

Take about 15 pieces of kola and crush them into powder.
In a clean container, combine the kola powder with a ½ glass of honey.
Take two tablespoons every morning and night for one week.
Helps With Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a condition that manifests as increased pressure within the eyeball. If left untreated, glaucoma can result in reduced eyesight and even blindness.

According to medical data, Garcinia kola helps reduce eye pressure, which makes it a great solution for glaucoma.

Scientists claim that eating bitter kola twice a day is enough to keep your vision in good shape. In addition, they recommend annual medical checks for preventive glaucoma testing.

Potential To Ease Respiratory Illness
Another traditional use of bitter kola is for healing lung-related illnesses, including bronchitis, asthma, and even tuberculosis. Recent research has confirmed this fact – Garcinia kola helps in improving lung function by enabling the alveoli to take in oxygen more easily.

Scientists believe that this is due to the powerful antioxidant properties of bitter cola seeds.

This, in combination with the antibacterial function, is what makes the tropical plant an ideal solution for respiratory issues.

Helps Protect Fertility In Men
According to a study conducted in 2014, Garcinia kola protects the sperm from the toxins in the environment. At the same time, regular intake of this bitter plant, especially in combination with doses of vitamin C, makes the sperm stronger and healthier.

Moreover, kola helps increase the spermatozoid count, boosts potency, and improves sexual performance (when consumed a few minutes before intercourse).

Even though this was credited to the caffeine content in the plant, the research concluded that these benefits are due to an antioxidant called kolaviron.

Could Alleviate Colitis Symptoms
Colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease that affects around 1 million Americans every year. The disease is manifested through a number of symptoms including abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and fever.

Recent studies have confirmed that bitter kola could help keep the inflammation at bay, allowing you to live your life without the above-mentioned uncomfortable symptoms.

In addition, the plant helps keep weight stable and provides ease of discomfort. However, people suffering from colitis are advised to consult their physician before starting the intake of bitter kola or changing their medication regimen.

Helps Alleviate Arthritis Pains
Osteoarthritis is a common form of arthritis that refers to degeneration of the joint cartilage, which often results in stiffness and pain. Osteoarthritis can often be the cause of obesity, frequent joint injuries, and premature aging.

However, studies have found that bitter kola can significantly reduce pain and inflammation caused by arthritis, at the same time offering comfort and increasing mobility.

This is, once again, due to the presence of kolaviron, a powerful antioxidant with anti-inflammatory effects.

Bitter Kola As A Snake Repellent
In addition to being used as a remedy, this tropical plant has many other uses.

Garcinia kola has been traditionally used as a natural snake repellent across Africa and Central America. It is known for its ability to repel snakes of all species and sizes in a radius of almost a mile!

All you need to do is grind the plant and combine it with some ground maize. Studies have not been done to confirm if this works on only specific types of snakes.

Bitter Kola Side Effects
If you decide to make this tropical plant a part of your healthy lifestyle, there are some possible side effects to consider.

Bitter cola can interact negatively with sedative medications and medications for the liver. If you’re taking such medications, make sure to consult your doctor before taking bitter kola.
The plant also interacts with sedative medications used for surgery and is forbidden to take at least 2 weeks before surgery, as well as afterward if you’re taking post-surgery medications.
Sometimes, bitter kola can cause insomnia and anxiety. If you exceed the recommended dosage, it can cause an irregular heartbeat. This is especially common in people sensitive to caffeine.
Even though Garcinia kola is not considered harmful for pregnant women, obstetricians advise against its use due to the presence of caffeine.
Although kola nuts are known for boosting metabolism and enhancing digestion, they’re not recommended for infants and very young children in cases of colic. Due to the high content of caffeine, kola can cause overstimulation and, in some cases, diarrhea, breathing trouble, and skin reactions. When your baby is old enough to chew food, you can introduce bitter cola in its diet after consulting a pediatrician.
Start with smaller amounts of this tropical plant see how you feel. If you don’t experience any adverse effects, you can gradually increase the daily dosage.

It is recommended to take bitter kola in the morning so the caffeine effect doesn’t interfere with your sleeping. This way, you will also get the energy to sustain you through your workday.

Where To Buy Bitter Kola
Bitter kola is available in some specialty stores and online. It is found in its raw and dried form. Bear in mind that when it’s dried, the plant’s taste and effects get stronger.

Bitter kola is also available as an extract. Kola extract is the easiest and cheapest way to make this amazing plant a part of your daily regimen. However, it is very important to follow dosage directions in order to avoid the occurrence of possible adverse effects. When buying bitter kola extract, make sure the manufacturer is reliable.

Conclusion
Bitter kola has been used as a powerful natural remedy in the African continent for centuries. Now, health communities in the western world are catching up with the numerous benefits that bitter kola has to offer.

The antioxidants and active components in the plant have been proven to help with a wide variety of health issues, ranging from simple coughs and bad breath to serious respiratory conditions and arthritis pain.

This should be enough to persuade you to include bitter kola in your everyday diet. However, make sure to consult a healthcare professional before doing so, in order to prevent any unwanted side effects.

Hotep

La perception de la richesse dans la pensée africaine

le système non-esclavagiste de l’Afrique ancienne, sur la vie exemplaire de la millionnaire noire Madam Walker, et sur le nécessaire retour au concept « d’Hommes parfaits » des anciens Egyptiens. Comment la tradition africaine voit-elle le fait d’être riche ? Que pouvons nous tirer de cette perception pour mieux nous bâtir ? Nous allons répondre.
« Il est glorieux d’être riche ». Ces mots ont été dits par Deng Xiaoping et symbolisent le basculement idéologique de la Chine. Au 19e siècle la Chine était un empire prestigieux, certains disent la première puissance économique mondiale. L’empire fut détruit par les colons européens et le pays fut par la suite humilié par la sanglante occupation japonaise. A la fin de la 2e guerre mondiale, le communisme d’inspiration soviétique – avec sa haine pour les riches et ceux qui possèdent des biens – pris le control de la Chine, avec Mao Zedong à sa tête. La Chine était alors un des pays les plus pauvres au monde avec des millions de personnes qui moururent de famine.

Deng pris le pouvoir suite à Mao et décida dans les années 70 d’une révolution des mentalités, en valorisant les personnes qui s’enrichissaient. Il n’était plus mal d’être riche et une classe d’entrepreneurs chinois commença à émerger, à s’enrichir et à enrichir le pays.

Les peuples dans le monde qui valorisent le fait d’être riche, finissent presque toujours par le devenir. L’exemple le plus révélateur est celui des Juifs. En Afrique être riche est une valeur chez les Bamilékés du Cameroun par exemple, qui économiquement s’en sortent mieux que d’autres. Au moment où l’Afrique entière doit aspirer à retrouver sa prospérité d’avant la traite négrière européenne, nous allons voir comment il est possible – tout en restant dans nos traditions – d’opérer un virage philosophique tel que celui de la Chine pour retrouver le bonheur matériel que nous avons perdu.

La perception de la richesse dans l’Afrique d’aujourd’hui

« Heureux les pauvres en esprit, car le royaume des cieux est à eux » Mathieu 5.3. Ce passage biblique très connu et manifestement mal compris, a installé dans l’esprit de beaucoup de Noirs chrétiens qu’être pauvre est une bonne chose. Hors de ce cadre religieux, posséder des biens matériels suscite beaucoup de jalousie, voir même des accusations systématiques de malfaisance, de sorcellerie etc… En Afrique on envie les riches, mais leur opulence n’est pas ouvertement vue comme quelque chose de positif. Il y a une hypocrisie sur le sujet. Au vu de cette perception ambiguë qui n’encourage pas tellement à se battre pour le confort matériel, que dit la philosophie africaine sur le sujet ?

L’Afrique ancienne et la richesse

La richesse époustouflante dans l’Afrique ancienne, aussi bien chez les gouvernants que les entrepreneurs.
A gauche l’Ethiopie ancienne, peinture du 18e siècle
A droite le Kongo, illustrateur inconnu
Même à l’époque pharaonique, les pièces sculptées somptueuses qu’ont laissées nos ancêtres – rivalisant de raffinement et d’éclat – montrent bien que le luxe n’était pas réprouvé. Les riches devaient ceci dit se soumettre à un code de bonne conduite, pour rester en conformité avec la tradition.

Les riches et le peuple

Ptah Hotep
Maât (la philosophie africaine) préconise l’humilité et la bonté envers les couches sociales moins favorisées. C’est très clair quand on analyse notre histoire avant les contacts avec les étrangers. Julius Nyerere poursuit et dit « Dans les temps anciens, l’Africain n’aspirait pas à posséder la richesse personnelle dans le but de dominer ses semblables » et encore « Certains d’entre nous aimeraient utiliser et exploiter nos frères dans le but de bâtir leur pouvoir et prestige personnels. Ceci nous est complètement étranger ». Cheikh Anta Diop ajoutait que le riche n’était respecté que s’il donnait aux couches sociales moins munies.

Comme nous l’avons détaillé ici, les travailleurs dans l’Afrique ancienne – y compris ceux de la caste inférieure des dépendants – mangeaient à satiété, avaient un toit, étaient habillés, étaient écoutés, et avaient même le droit de grève comme en Egypte. La misère était quasi inexistante à l’époque impériale parce que l’Etat et les individus riches prenaient soin des moins favorisés.

Maât
Ce code africain de bonne conduite est à l’opposé du capitalisme et ses méfaits. Les Européens – pour qui la richesse matérielle est le but même de l’existence – ont ainsi accédé à la richesse en exterminant les Amérindiens et les Noirs d’Australie, et en anéantissant les Africains. Les Européens juifs ont en particulier joué un rôle important dans la traite des Blancs par les musulmans et la traite négrière européenne. Tout le monde connaît les conditions de vie déplorables des ouvriers chinois, même si la situation s’améliore quelque peu. C’est ce modèle capitaliste d’exploitation des plus faibles qu’on retrouve aujourd’hui en Afrique par contamination étrangère. La valorisation de la richesse dans ces cas-ci, se sera faite au mépris des lois de l’humanité.

Conclusion

La pensée africaine accepte parfaitement le fait d’être riche et de vivre dans le confort matériel. Le monde noir décollera en bonne partie quand il aura une masse considérable de riches entrepreneurs. Si vous pensez entreprendre et nous lisez, nous souhaitons vivement que vous en fassiez partie. Vous devez aspirer comme nos ancêtres à avoir de la richesse par le travail. Ne vous fixez pas de limite. Plus vous avez de l’argent, mieux c’est. Allez y franchement !!

Dans votre ascension vers l’acquisition de cette richesse, vous devrez toujours être animés par Maât. Vous respecterez la vie, en veillant toujours à donner des salaires et des conditions dignes de leur humanité à ceux qui travaillent pour vous. Avec le pouvoir que vous donnera cette richesse, vous contribuerez à nourrir, à éduquer, à soigner et à inspirer les Africains. Il nous revient en partie de vider ou de transformer les Township de Johannesburg, Kibera à Naïrobi, Tié Tié à Pointe-Noire, Makoko à Lagos, les Ghettos noirs de Chicago ou les Favelas de Rio.

Nous devons être riches, pour faire la Maât.

Hotep !

Par : Lisapo ya Kama ©

Notes :

Ujamaa, the basis of African socialism ; Julius Nyerere
L’Afrique noire précoloniale, Cheikh Anta Diop

Hotep